On a balance sheet or in a ledger, assets equal liabilities plus shareholders’ equity. An increase in the value of assets is a debit to the account, and a decrease is a credit. Applications built-in control characters and device-specific processing. The brain-dead systems that required both CR and LF simply had no abstraction for record separators or line terminators. The CR was necessary in order to get the teletype or video display to return to column one and the LF (today, NL, same code) was necessary to get it to advance to the next line.
- These characters are usually used to mark end of lines in text files.
- Harold Averkamp (CPA, MBA) has worked as a university accounting instructor, accountant, and consultant for more than 25 years.
- A higher than typical result may be a sign of kidney disease.
- Let’s review the basics of Pacioli’s method of bookkeeping or double-entry accounting.
- Creatinine clearance is reported as milliliters of creatinine per minute per body surface area (mL/min/BSA).
(Unix, ahem, came first.) And naturally, they used a control code that was already “close” to S.O.P. Now, we take it for granted that anything we want to represent is in some way structured data and conforms to various abstractions that define lines, files, protocols, messages, markup, whatever. The sad state of “record separators” or “line terminators” is a legacy of the dark ages of computing. If you see ASCII code in a strange format, they are merely the number 13 and 10 in a different radix/base, usually base 8 (octal) or base 16 (hexadecimal). Find centralized, trusted content and collaborate around the technologies you use most.
What Is the Meaning of Debit (DR) and Credit (CR)?
of the two functions concealed the
fact that the print head could not
return from the far right to the
beginning of the next line in
one-character time. In fact, it was often necessary
to send extra characters (extraneous
CRs or NULs, which are ignored) to
give the print head time to move to
the left margin. Let’s review the basics of Pacioli’s method of bookkeeping or double-entry accounting.
Creatinine clearance is reported as milliliters of creatinine per minute per body surface area (mL/min/BSA). The typical range for men, 19 to 75 years old, is 77 to 160 mL/min/BSA. Unix and Mac actually specified an abstraction for the line end, imagine that.
As you pointed out, Windows uses the CR/LF combination while pre-OS X Macs use just CR and so on. Your doctor or other health care provider will discuss the results of a creatinine adp totalsource software test with you and help you understand what the information means for a diagnosis or treatment plan. A higher than typical result may be a sign of kidney disease.
Get the Mayo Clinic app
He is the sole author of all the materials on AccountingCoach.com. Indicates an entry on the right side of a general ledger account. For a creatinine urine test, you may need to collect urine over 24 hours in containers provided by the clinic. Since almost all of our operating software today is a descendent of Unix, Mac, or Microsoft operating software, we are stuck with the line ending confusion. CR and LF are a special set of characters that help us format our code. The word crore derives from the Prakrit word kroḍi, which in turn comes from the Sanskrit koṭi (कोटि), denoting ten million in the Indian numbering system, which has separate terms for most powers of ten from 100 up to 1019.
This character is used as a new line character in most other non-Unix operating systems including Microsoft Windows, Symbian and others. The measure of serum creatinine may also be used to estimate how quickly the kidneys filter blood (glomerular filtration rate). Because of variability in serum creatinine from one person to another, the GFR may provide a more accurate reading on kidney function. The formula for calculating GFR takes into account the serum creatinine count and other factors, such as age and sex. The range of scores below 60 may be used to monitor treatment and disease progression. The Carriage Return (CR) character (0x0D, \r) moves the cursor to the beginning of the line without advancing to the next line.
Understanding Debit (DR) and Credit (CR)
Creatinine clearance is usually determined from a measurement of creatinine in a 24-hour urine sample and from a serum sample taken during the same time period. Accurate timing and collection of the urine sample is important. Theoretically, CR returns the cursor to the first position (on the left). This is how in the old days you controlled printers and text-mode monitors.
This character is used as a new line character in Commodore and early Macintosh operating systems (Mac OS 9 and earlier). The terms debit and credit signify actual accounting functions, both of which cause increases and decreases in accounts, depending on the type of account. That’s why simply using “increase” and “decrease” to signify changes to accounts wouldn’t work.
There are a few theories on the origin of the abbreviations used for debit (DR) and credit (CR) in accounting. To explain these theories, here is a brief introduction to the use of debits and credits, and how the technique of double-entry accounting, came to be. This website is using a security service to protect itself from online attacks. The action you just performed triggered the security solution. There are several actions that could trigger this block including submitting a certain word or phrase, a SQL command or malformed data. Harold Averkamp (CPA, MBA) has worked as a university accounting instructor, accountant, and consultant for more than 25 years.
For a serum creatinine test, a member of your health care team takes a blood sample by inserting a needle into a vein in your arm. CR is a bytecode for carriage return (from the days of typewriters) and LF similarly, for line feed. It just refers to the bytes that are placed as end-of-line markers. When Client A pays the invoice to Company XYZ, the accountant records the amount as a credit in the accounts receivables section and a debit in the cash section. Credit entries will increase the credit balances that are typical for liability, revenues, and stockholders’ equity accounts.
About Mayo Clinic
A measurement of creatinine in your blood or urine provides clues to help your doctor determine how well the kidneys are working. A creatinine test is a measure of how well your kidneys are performing their job of filtering waste from your blood. These characters are usually used to mark end of lines in text files.
I guess the idea of doing something other than dumping the raw data to the device was too complex. The End of Line (EOL) sequence (0x0D 0x0A, \r\n) is actually two ASCII characters, a combination of the CR and LF characters. It moves the cursor both down to the next line and to the beginning of that line.
In particular, the result may indicate a complication of diabetes called diabetic nephropathy, or diabetic kidney disease. A standard blood test is used to measure creatinine levels in your blood (serum creatinine). Your doctor may ask you not to eat (fast) overnight before the test. When it comes to the DR and CR abbreviations for debit and credit, a few theories exist.
This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. For a urine test, you’ll need to provide a single sample in the clinic or collect samples at home over 24 hours and return them to the clinic. As you indicated, Windows uses two characters the CR LF sequence; Unix (and macOS starting with Mac OS X 10.0) only uses LF; and the classic Mac OS (before 10.0) used CR. CR and LF are control characters, respectively coded 0x0D (13 decimal) and 0x0A (10 decimal).
One theory asserts that the DR and CR come from the Latin present active infinitives of debitum and creditum, which are debere and credere, respectively. Another theory is that DR stands for “debit record” and CR stands for “credit record.” Finally, some believe the DR notation is short for “debtor” and CR is short for “creditor.” When you increase assets, the change in the account is a debit, because something must be due for that increase (the price of the asset). Conversely, an increase in liabilities is a credit because it signifies an amount that someone else has loaned to you and which you used to purchase something (the cause of the corresponding debit in the assets account). The term debit comes from the word debitum, meaning “what is due,” and credit comes from creditum, defined as “something entrusted to another or a loan.” All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only.
Creatinine clearance is a measure of how well the kidneys filter creatinine out of the bloodstream for excretion in urine. Creatinine usually enters your bloodstream and is filtered from the bloodstream at a generally constant rate. The amount of creatinine in your blood should be relatively stable. An increased level of creatinine may be a sign of poor kidney function.
- The terms debit and credit signify actual accounting functions, both of which cause increases and decreases in accounts, depending on the type of account.
- When Client A pays the invoice to Company XYZ, the accountant records the amount as a credit in the accounts receivables section and a debit in the cash section.
- The amount of creatinine in your blood should be relatively stable.
- Another interpretation of urine creatinine count is called the albumin/creatinine ratio.
Credit entries will also decrease the debit balances usually found in asset and expense accounts. Another interpretation of urine creatinine count is called the albumin/creatinine ratio. Healthy kidneys generally don’t filter it out of the blood, so there should be little to no albumin found in the urine. Results lower than the typical range for your age group may be a sign of poor kidney function or conditions that affect blood flow to your kidneys.